See also grand jury. Indictment The formal charge issued by a grand jury stating that there is enough evidence that the defendant committed the crime to justify having a trial; it is used primarily for felonies. See also information.
Find plain-English definitions for legal terms by browsing Nolo’s Plain-English Law Dictionary. You can also purchase Nolo’s Plain-English Law Dictionary as a downloadable eBook or as a paperback. To find all definitions that include a specific term, enter a word or phrase below. For the definition of a legal term, enter a word or phrase below. A person who acts in a legal manner or with legal authority.
Legal Dictionary: Q
https://personal-accounting.org/ An individual against whom a lawsuit is filed. Creditor A person to whom or business to which the debtor owes money or that claims to be owed money by the debtor. Claim A creditor’s assertion of a right to payment from a debtor or the debtor’s property. Business bankruptcy A bankruptcy case in which the debtor is a business or an individual involved in business and the debts are for business purposes. Brief A written statement submitted in a trial or appellate proceeding that explains one side’s legal and factual arguments.
- The rules and process by which a civil case is tried and appealed, including the preparations for trial, the rules of evidence and trial conduct, and the procedure for pursuing appeals.
- Summons – A legal document used to begin a civil case or to tell a person they must appear in court or respond to a lawsuit.
- Bankruptcy judge A judicial officer of the United States district court who is the court official with decision-making power over federal bankruptcy cases.
- See also decree, order.
- Proof of a probative matter presented at trial for the purpose of inducing belief in the minds of the jury or judge.
- Often referred to as a TRO.
- Battery always includes assault.
Sentencing guidelines A set of Legal Dictionary and principles established by the United States Sentencing Commission that trial judges use to determine the sentence for a convicted defendant. Priority The Bankruptcy Code’s statutory ranking of unsecured claims that determines the order in which unsecured claims will be paid if there is not enough money to pay all unsecured claims in full.
Plain Language Law Dictionary
Venue – Authority of a court to hear a matter based on geographical location. Notary Public – A person who has been authorized by a state to administer oaths or certify documents.
Individuals or people in business can also seek relief in Chapter 11. Bankruptcy trustee A private individual or corporation appointed in all Chapter 7 and Chapter 13 cases to represent the interests of the bankruptcy estate and the debtor’s creditors. Writ of garnishment – An order of the court whereby property, money, or credits in the possession of another person may be seized and applied to pay a debtor’s debt.
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Wrongful Death Statute. A doctrine where courts can deny enforcement of a contract because of unfairness or abuses to a party to the contract arising out of the making of the contract or the terms of the contract. The first court to hear the case, as opposed to an appellate court which hears appeals of decisions made in trial courts. Substitution of Parties. The replacement of one party to a lawsuit by another. Doctrine that holds defendants liable for harm caused by their actions regardless of their intentions or lack of negligence.
They typically provide a short definition with reference to cases and other legal sources for authority, and frequently give examples of word usage in various legal situations. Black’s Law Dictionary is the leading legal dictionary in the United States. Legal dictionaries can be found in print and online sources. Settlement Parties to a lawsuit resolve their dispute without having a trial.
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Appearance – The act of coming into court as a party to a suit either in person or through an attorney. Admiralty law – That body of law relating to ships, shipping, marine commerce and navigation, transportation of persons or property by sea, etc. Acquittal – A release, absolution, or discharge of an obligation or liability. In criminal law the finding of not guilty.
In a life insurance context, an illness that permanently or materially impairs, or is likely to permanently or materially impair, the health of the applicant. Scope of Employment. The actions done by an employee to carry out the business of an employer that are reasonably foreseeable by that employer as being part of the business. Records of Work Environment. Records and documents relating to workplace health, safety, hazards, and exposure. The degree of care that a prudent or careful person would exercise under the same or similar circumstances.
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Priority claim An unsecured claim that is entitled to be paid ahead of other unsecured claims that are not entitled to priority status. Priority refers to the order in which these unsecured claims are to be paid. Postpetition transfer A transfer of the debtor’s property made after the commencement of the case. Plea In a criminal case, the defendant’s statement pleading “guilty” or “not guilty” in answer to the charges. See also nolo contendere. Petition preparer A business not authorized to practice law that prepares bankruptcy petitions. Per curiam Latin, meaning “for the court.” In appellate courts, often refers to an unsigned opinion.
- Claim A creditor’s assertion of a right to payment from a debtor or the debtor’s property.
- A dismissal without prejudice allows a lawsuit to be brought before the court again at a later time.
- A letter sent to you by the insurance company explaining why payments are delayed.
- Among the things it typically must include are the name and address of the corporation, its general purpose and the number and type of shares of stock to be issued.
- Most often, it is the owner of the property.
- Interrogatories must be answered under oath within a specific period of time.
Written direction or command made by a court or judge, and not included in a judgment. Remark by a judge in a legal opinion that is irrelevant to the decision and does not establish precedent . Often used in the plural, dicta. Mitigation of Damages or Doctrine of Avoidable Consequences. Imposes a duty on victims of a tort to take reasonable steps to minimize their damages after an injury has been inflicted.